Montgomery County is the most populous county in the U.S. state of Maryland, located adjacent to Washington, D.C. As of the 2010 census, the county’s population was 971,777, increasing by 8.3% to an estimated 1,052,567 in 2018. The county seat and largest municipality is Rockville, although the census-designated place of Germantown is the most populous city within the county. Montgomery County is included in the Washington–Arlington–Alexandria, DC–VA–MD–WV Metropolitan Statistical Area, which in turn forms part of the Baltimore–Washington Combined Statistical Area. Most of the county’s residents live in unincorporated locales, of which the most built up are Silver Spring and Bethesda, although the incorporated cities of Rockville and Gaithersburg are also large population centers, as are many smaller but significant places.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 507 square miles (1,310 km), of which 491 square miles (1,270 km) is land and 16 square miles (41 km) (3.1%) is water. Montgomery County lies entirely inside the Piedmont plateau. The topography is generally rolling. Elevations range from a low of near sea level along the Potomac River to about 875 feet in the northernmost portion of the county north of Damascus. Relief between valley bottoms and hilltops is several hundred feet.
When Montgomery County was created in 1776, its boundaries were defined as “beginning at the east side of the mouth of Rock Creek on Potowmac river [sic], and running with the said river to the mouth of Monocacy, then with a straight line to Par’s spring, from thence with the lines of the county to the beginning”.
The county’s boundary forms a sliver of land at the far northern tip of the county that is several miles long and averages less than 200 yards wide. In fact, a single house on Lakeview Drive and its yard is sectioned by this sliver into 3 portions, each separately contained within Montgomery, Frederick and Howard Counties. These jurisdictions and Carroll County meet at a single point at Parr’s Spring on Parr’s Ridge.
Since the 1970s, the county has had in place a Moderately Priced Dwelling Unit (MPDU) zoning plan that requires developers to include affordable housing in any new residential developments that they construct in the county. The goal is to create socioeconomically mixed neighborhoods and schools so the rich and poor are not isolated in separate parts of the county. Developers who provide for more than the minimum amount of MPDUs are rewarded with permission to increase the density of their developments, which allows them to build more housing and generate more revenue. Montgomery County was one of the first counties in the U.S. to adopt such a plan, but many other areas have since followed suit.
As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 873,058 people residing in the county. The racial makeup of the county was 65.0% white, 15.1% black or African American, 11.3% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 5.0% from other races, and 3.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 11.5% of the population.
There were 324,565 households of which 35% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.2% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.9% were non-families. 24.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.19.
25.4% of the population was under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 32.3% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, and 11.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.1 males.
In 2000, there were 334,632 housing units at an average density of 675 per square mile (261/km).
Montgomery County has the tenth highest median household income in the United States, and the second highest in the state after Howard County as of 2011. The median household income in 2007 was $89,284 and the median family income was $106,093. Males had a median income of $66,415 versus $52,134 for females. The per capita income for the county was $43,073. About 3.3% of families and 4.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.6% of those under age 18 and 4.6% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 971,777 people, 357,086 households, and 244,898 families residing in the county. The population density was 1,978.2 inhabitants per square mile (763.8/km). There were 375,905 housing units at an average density of 765.2 per square mile (295.4/km). The racial makeup of the county was 57.5% white, 17.2% black or African American, 13.9% Asian, 0.4% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 7.0% from other races, and 4.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 17.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 10.7% were German, 9.6% were Irish, 7.9% were English, 4.9% were Italian, 3.5% were Russian, 3.1% were Polish, 2.9% were American and 2% were French. 8.1% of Montgomery County was of Central American descent, with Salvadoran Americans constituting 5.4% of the county’s population. Over 52,000 people of Salvadoran descent lived in Montgomery County, with Salvadoran Americans comprising approximately 32% of the county’s Hispanic and Latino population. 3.8% of the county is of South American descent, with Peruvian Americans being the largest South American community constituting 1.2% of the county’s population.
Of the 357,086 households, 35.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.4% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.4% were non-families, and 25.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.22. The median age was 38.5 years.
The median income for a household in the county was $93,373 and the median income for a family was $111,737. Males had a median income of $71,841 versus $55,431 for females. The per capita income for the county was $47,310. About 4.0% of families and 6.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.2% of those under age 18 and 6.3% of those age 65 or over.
The United States Census Bureau estimated the county’s population was 1,030,447 as of 2014. If it were a city, it would be the tenth most populous city in the U.S. after San Jose, California and Austin, Texas.
The ethnic makeup of the county was estimated to be the following in 2013:
In addition, 18.3% were Hispanic or Latino, of any race.
People who were born on continent of Africa are 6% of the county’s total residents. The plurality of these were born in Ethiopia. People from China are the fastest-growing immigrant population in the county; people from Ethiopia are the county’s second-fastest growing immigrant population.
The United States Census Bureau estimated the county’s population as 1,043,863 as of 2016.
The race and Hispanic original of the county’s residents was estimated to be the following as of 2016:
In addition, 19.1% were Hispanic or Latino, of any race.
Of residents age 25 or older, 91.2% have graduated high school, and 57.1% had a bachelor’s degree.
Of the county’s population, 32.6% were born outside the United States.
44,718 veterans lived in the county in 2016.
Of residents age 5 or older, 39.8% spoke a language other than English at home in 2016.
As of July 1, 2018 The United States Census Bureau estimates the population of the county to be, 1,052,567 residents.
The Race and Hispanic origin of the county’s residents is estimated to be:
The Age and Sex is estimated to be:
With the amount of housing units estimated to be 390,664.
Of Montgomery County’s residents, 14% are Catholic, 5% are Baptist, 3% are Methodist, 1% are Presbyterian, 1% are Episcopalian, 1% are part of the Latter Day Saint movement, 1% are Lutheran, 6% are of another Christian faith, 3% are Jewish, 1% follows Islam, and 1% are of an eastern faith. Overall, 41% of the county’s residents are affiliated with a religion.